“While their conjectures are as speculative as any vulnerability identified in an official financial stability report, unlike official financial stability reports, they have the freedom to identify government policies and regulatory shortcomings as vulnerabilities,” Kupiec said.

The first panelist to speak was Alex Pollock, distinguished senior fellow at R Street Institute, a free market think tank in Washington, DC. Pollock mentioned several possible causes of the next financial crisis, including errors in judgment by the world’s central banks, a housing-market collapse, a future pandemic, or war. He cautioned that a crisis could be caused by a factor that “nobody sees coming,” which would inevitably hamper state response.

“If the next crisis is again triggered by what we don’t see, the government reaction will again be flying by the seat of their pants, making it up as they go along,” Pollock said.