In hindsight, the United States should have expected that Russia would search for new purpose after its empire col- lapsed. The transition from superpower to “something else” was, in part, a search for Russian identity.2 And although Rus- sia has yet to settle on the principles of this new “nation- hood,” it has returned to two very old narratives: First, that America is an enemy; and second, that Russia is a “besieged fortress, surrounded by enemies.”

Image credit: E. O.