From Brookings Institution:

The three-tier system aimed to deter the vertical integration of the tied-house days, but now is controversial with critics who argue that the distribution tier is oligopolistic. “The second tier is the choke point,” Kevin Kosar, a senior fellow at the R Street Institute and author of Whiskey: A Global History, told us. “If you want to keep the small players in the market, then the small producers should be allowed to sell direct to retail outlets. That’s the absolute key.”

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