Government policies reshape the banking industry: Changes, consequences, and policy issues
On April 12, AEI’s Paul H. Kupiec hosted a panel discussion on recent changes in the banking industry and their consequences for the wider economy. He reviewed how the industry has consolidated, is lending less to the private sector, and is relying more on federal guarantees.
Richard E. Sylla of New York University summarized the history of the banking industry. Aside from a 50-year period of stability, US banking has trended toward a system characterized by a few large banks with extensive branch systems, branch systems that are now in decline themselves.
Charles Calomiris of Columbia University summarized more recent trends in the banking industry as a “three-legged stool”: extreme consolidation, extreme dependency on government support, and reliance on real estate lending. Alex J. Pollock of the R Street Institute added that the greater “banking credit system” is increasingly influenced by the Federal Reserve and government-sponsored enterprises.
Bert Ely of Ely & Company enumerated the industry risks. Depository institutions are intermediating deposits into government debt. Low interest rates have also squeezed bank margins and reduced the cushion to absorb losses that may arise from the pandemic.
— John Kearns
The federal government response to the 2008 financial crisis, including new laws, prudential regulations, and Federal Reserve monetary policies, has left a lasting impact on the banking industry. Not only has the number of independent depository institutions almost halved since 2000, but the industry has also become much more concentrated in a few large “systemically important” institutions. Moreover, the characteristics of the largest banks have changed dramatically according to incentives established by heightened prudential regulatory requirements and the Federal Reserve’s long-lived zero interest rate environment.
Join AEI as a panel of banking experts discusses postcrisis changes in the banking industry and their consequences for the wider economy.
Introduction and opening remarks: Paul H. Kupiec, Resident Scholar, AEI
Panelists: Charles Calomiris, Henry Kaufman Professor of Financial Institutions, Columbia University Bert Ely, Principal, Ely & Company Alex J. Pollock, Distinguished Senior Fellow, R Street Institute Richard E. Sylla, Professor Emeritus of Economics, New York University
Moderator: Paul H. Kupiec, Resident Scholar, AEI
“20 years of banking history in 67 charts and tables”: https://www.aei.org/research-products/working-paper/20-years-of-banking-history-in-67-tables-and-charts/
“From exceptional to normal: Changes in the structure of US banking since 1920”: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/financial-history-review/article/from-exceptional-to-normal-changes-in-the-structure-of-us-banking-since-1920/E7C292DF0DB48705B0CDB4E1D3046D66