These labor market issues are a consequence of circumstantial challenges. Unsurprisingly, as a 2018 report from the Council of Economic Advisers found, they encounter “geographic and temporal constraints” because of relocations of their active duty spouses. This is not a tragedy—it’s part of maintaining a modern military. The tragic part is that our laws and policies at the federal and state levels don’t do much to mitigate the barriers this lifestyle places on military spouses. There are some programs in place at the Defense Department. And, in 2019, Congress passed the bipartisan Portable Certification of Spouses Act, intended to assist with overcoming barriers posed by state-level occupational licensing requirements.