From Bank Info Security:

Multiple panelists, including Kathryn Waldron, a Fellow at R Street Institute, highlighted that really, it’s likely both.

R Street Institute’s Waldron also highlighted that when it comes to Chinese-built gear potentially being used to support Beijing’s espionage aims, it’s impossible to fully quantify all of the risks that might pose. Same again, she noted, for the impact of all of the massive data breaches of personal information that have been attributed to China, such as the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Equifax and Marriott breaches.