Additionally, a 2017 study by R Street Institute analyzed the reduction in Medicaid costs that would likely occur if a large number of current Medicaid recipients switched from combustible cigarettes to e-cigarettes or vaping devices. The author used a sample size of “1% of smokers [within] demographic groups permanently” switching. According to R Street’s analysis, Medicaid savings “will be approximately $2.8 billion per 1 percent of enrollees,” over the next 25 years.